Tag Archives: Serge

Finding Focus, or Why I Left Eurorack

I recently sold my Eurorack Modular System. I needed to take care of some home repairs, and it did help cover the cost involved.

I have missed it far less than I thought I would, and it has allowed me to focus on my other modular system, my Serge format system far more.  This is not to get into a debate of mini-jacks versus banana jacks, my personal preference in terms of format comes more from what I like, not necessarily what is better.  The Serge format panels were ones where I commissioned builders, while the Eurorack was mostly commercial off the shelf units, save for the few I made myself. There was less of an emotional investment as a result.  I am also in the process of building a few serge format panels myself.

Leaving Eurorack removed a level of distraction, and made me focus on my goal. There is though something to be said with modular that rarely does get said, which is the benefits of scaling down ones setup, and refocusing. Over time when using a modular synthesizer one begins to understand what works and what does not in terms of personal workflows and musical (or non-musical) results. The benefits are adjusting along the way. While some do focus largely on novelty, having something that works for one personally is far more important. This is why some people can do beautiful stuff off of a small system.  In my case I am in the position now to know exactly what I want and is the right size for me going forward.

This is not to say I will not one day return to Eurorack, but when I do, it will be from a much different place. One not necessarily of exploration of the format, but clarity. As such it would likely be a smaller system than what I had previously.

Q or No Q?

As it stands neither of my modular systems have many resonant filters. In fact I always have a little internal debate in my head in terms of how useful such filters even are for myself.

One of the main gripes of many people have about older FM synthesizers such as the DX7 is the fact there were no resonant filters. For people who play keyboard synthesizers the simple subtractive signal flow of a Moog is often preferred to the algorithmic complexity of a DX7. However, over time the usefulness of frequency modulation has come to light more, and people are now shifting to a different mentality regarding filters.

Those of us who play modulars though are far more foggy regarding resonant filters though. Some people love them and they remain critical to a signal flow. Others, like myself tend to maybe have one around just in case, but do not necessary use them. I use this as a prime example, my Serge/Ian Fritz system only has one resonant filter, the Ian Fritz Teezer.

This is not to say I don’t have filters, they are just  modules which can act as non-resonant low pass gates such as the Dual Universal Slope Generator, and the Smooth and Stepped Generator.  In addition my custom built panel also has a Buchla style low pass gate. Instead my personal system is heavily reliant on Frequency Modulation, Ring Modulation, Hard Syncs, and Waveshaping to add complexity to generated sounds.

There has been a long discussion over “West Coast” and “East Coast” in the modular world over modular synthesizers. This dates back to Buchla and Moogs original modular systems. Buchla had more waveshaping and frequency modulation, while Moog systems had low pass resonant filters. The lines blurred over time with Serge having both resonant filters, FM, and Waveshaping in his modular systems, as did other makers. Serge though is still largely considered west coast with the multi-function modules such as the Universal Slope Generator. That and the fact he was living in San Francisco at the time of creating his original modules.

The reality is as synthesizers became more keyboard instruments, the Moog style signal flow began to win out, and with it, resonant filters. Q won the day, at least for a time. This however has changed over the years as people began to realize some of the benefits to that west coast signal flow. Vactrols and non-resonant filters began to become a more consistent part of modular synthesizers even outside of Buchla’s systems in recent years.  People began to see the benefits of Serge and Buchla’s designs.

This is the thing, in terms of my own music, I cannot really see much of the purpose for resonant filters. I always feel I need more of them, but often realize I rarely use the ones I have and instead fall back on other synthesis methods, especially waveshaping and FM. The best use of the resonant filter often ends up being another oscilator.  The reality is I am more comfortable without the Q.


Getting Started: DIY Synthesizer Kits

Building a synthesizer or synthesizer  module is one of the most enjoyable things in life.  At least to me. One of the things I noticed about many of the early synthesists, many learned on how to make. Daphne Oram, Laurie Spiegel, and many other synthesists were introduced to electronics very early in their childhood. I highly recommend if you have daughters, that you please introduce your daughters to electronics DIY. Especially if they have a crafty side. I know this may sound like a record on repeat at this point, but there are far too few women in technology and engineering. Building synths from PCB boards  and electronic kits is one only a great introduction to synthesizers, but also having a deeper understanding of how technology works and making in general.

This is a little bit of a warning, building DIY from synthesizers does entail some risk for some kits. DIY electronics often involves soldering, and all of these have an appropriate age and maturity level to get started. If you are doing this with your child, and  feel your kid is not ready for a soldering iron, there are alternatives I will list later in this post. As fun as it is, and make no mistake, soldering  involves a very hot device, and testing things sometimes that involve electricity.  With that being said, the kits I am going to be recommending to start are pretty simple and easy to get started on, they often include comprehensive documentation. If following the instructions in the documentation the risk for injury is low. Also some kits are explicitly made for a wide age range.

First off, if you are planning on building synthesizers from PCBs, you will need the following things: a Soldering Iron ideally with a temperature gauge and multiple tips, good solder (Kester No-Clean Flux 63/37 Solder), flux, a good multimeter (there is no reason to spend a ton), wire cutters, a wire stripper, a solder tip cleaner (non-wet), a solder wick, a solder sucker, and small screwdrivers. It is also good idea to have a decent lamp and magnifying glass with a gooseneck.  This may seem like a great deal but it will all last a long time. One option is to have an oscilloscope for calibration as well, but that is not necessary to get started with building.  It is a good idea to always do this in a well ventilated room with a fan. In terms of safety, safety goggles and a mask are recommended if you are soldering. The mask for the fumes, the goggles are for obvious reasons.

There are so many good guides on “how to solder” on youtube.  Instead of providing an explanation, I actually think that watching one of these videos is more helpful than anything I can explain.

It should be noted, that in general you should start by checking the board with the multimeter, and the components. Start by soldering the resistors first, then the rest of the smaller components like the caps and chips. This is called stuffing the board. Once you get those out of the way, then the other components come into play, with the LEDs, pots, and wiring usually being the last things that are done. During the last steps of the process you begin testing the device to confirm it’s functionality before mounting it to it’s case or panel. Again, this will be covered in the documentation for what you are building, or any online build guide.

While there are several companies that make appropriate DIY kits to start out with. I will be starting a page with all the resources for things such as DIY kits I can find. However, for this purpose I will start with the two which are both the most commonly found, but also the most beginner friendly.

Adult and Older Child Beginner Friendly


4MS has become known in the modular DIY community as one of the best starting points for DIY synthesizer modules. Their Eurorack modular kits have some of the best documentation for DIY electronics out there. These guides are not just good for building their modules, but as a general educational resource for getting started with modular synthesizers. The downside to the 4MS modular kits is you already have to be into modular synthesizers, since it requires you already have a eurorack case and power supply to start off. But if you are already into modular synthesizers and have a eurorack system, this is a great place to start.  With that being said, their guitar pedal kits offer a good alternative to their eurorack systems.

4MS also makes guitar pedal kits that are self oscillating in some cases. The pedals themselves in many ways are mini-drone synths. There are people in the experimental community that “play pedals” for drone and noise music. The 4MS pedals are appropriate for this. Some of these pedal kits can be used as stand alone devices, so even if you do not have a modular synthesizer this does not mean you will miss out on these great kits. The cool thing about pedals is in some ways you can create your own signal chains.

Kid Friendly

Moog Music

While the werkstatt-01 and the moog theremin kits are not the strongest start for adults as they do not introduce full component building, they do both provide a quick introduction to some of the very basics of both DIY and synthesis. These kits are highly recommended for people who are doing this with their kids, and want something that is both fun and educational. The best part of the werkstatt is it can expand outside just what is provided with the kit.

Korg Music and littleBits

Korg Music worked with littlebits for an introductory synth kits. littleBits is a beginner DIY electronics system that is meant for education and experimentation. The company was founded by Ayah Badier, a female engineer. I HIGHLY recommend if you have kids you introduce them to littleBits period, and the Korg kit is one of the most common and fun. The nice thing about little bits is if you feel your kid is not ready for soldering, they can still make with these kits. I should note, littleBits beauty is they are also useful for adults to get started and play with.

Other Notable DIY Resources:

Ken Stones CGS

Ken Stone is where one can get Serge and CGS PCBs. These PCB projects are considered rather advanced.

Electro-music forum 

The electro voice forum has been around for a very long time. It is one of the largest synth DIY communities on the internet.

Muffwiggler Forum Music Tech DIY Subsection

While I would not recommend spending time on some sections of the forum, the DIY subsection is an incredibly useful resource and the site of many new and interesting DIY projects. If you keep just to this section of the board your experience will be positive.


Adafruit is a source for DIY supplies and in some cases kits. It has all sorts of interesting DIY electronics projects and 3D printers as well. It is also a female founded business, Limor Fried the founder is also behind the legendary xoxbox project. Adafruit always seems to have some smaller DIY music projects worth exploring.



Mouser is one of the largest component retailers in the world. This is where you get resistors, caps, chips, and other fun stuff.


Synthcube is both a resource for rare parts, but also many pcbs and panels for synths


Thonk sells various synthesizer kits and sometimes components. They are UK based and highly recommended for those in Europe.

Elby Designs

Elby designs sells both component kits, stand alone synth kits,  as well as Panther DIY modules. Panther is produces many of the IAN fritz DIY kits for Eurorack.

The Bridechamber

The bridechamber sells a large number of DIY kits for dotcom and MOTM 5U modular format.

COA Modular

COA has both DIY synth workshops in SF and frequently releases the serge panels that can be used with CGS PCBs. Dmitri can also make custom designed unbuilt serge panels if you have a specific idea, but do not have the resources to make the panel.