On Wednesday the North Carolina’s GOP legislature and governor crammed through a virulent anti-lgbt law. This law not only stripped localities of their local anti-discrimination protections for LGBTQ people, but also included many specific anti-trans provisions.
For those who do not know North Carolina politics in the last few years, there has been an increasing gulf between the mostly liberal cities, and the arch-conservative GOP state legislature and governor. I highly suggest people to look up “Moral Mondays” to see how contested this has been. Asheville, where Moog Music and Make Noise music is located is very liberal city which includes many of these protections.
The response from Moog, well was pretty much perfect. Wendy Carlos is a trans woman who was Robert Moog’s lifelong friend. The picture is a deeply symbolic response. When Moog says they synthesize inclusion, they mean it. Wendy helped raise the profile of Moog, and synthesizers. Her “Switched On” classical albums basically exploded the popularity of synthesizers in popular music. To explain how popular these albums were, one must consider they have few real rivals. There are few albums that changed music forever, Switched on Bach was one of them. Moog and Moog Music has supported and promoted many LGBTQ artists over the years, Wendy was just the first.
This is the point, I get the calls for a boycott, I really do. I am pissed as hell about this law as a queer person. But by boycotting some companies in NC, we may in fact be hurting the companies that will be in the front lines fighting against this legislation. Moog being one of them. There may be no better corporate ally with regards to these anti-LGBT provisions than Moog. Moog holds a massive music festival in NC, and has made NC a destination for many musicians who come through the state visiting their factory and Asheville. When they say #Thisisnotus they mean it. The fly by night efforts of the NC legislature’s exercise in bigoted anti-lgbtq law making should not be used against the very real efforts by NC businesses and cities which are trying to make themselves inclusive places. These are allies in the fight against intolerance, and they should be supported, not boycotted. I am not saying “don’t boycott”, but rather be selective. We need to boycott the money and businesses behind the intolerance, but we also need to support those who are or will be fighting it.
As an employee-owned company, we are a group of wonderfully diverse individuals who share a passion for designing inspirational tools. Bob Moog believed, as do we, that the most beautiful and innovative solutions evolve from harnessing the collective power of divergent ideas and perspectives. Exclusion limits our path to progress and denies our living connection to each other.
The Moog factory and Moogfest are, and always will be, safe and inclusive spaces for the LGBTQ community and their allies.
I was lucky enough to go to Asheville, NC to Moog Music to review their new semi-modular synthesizer the Mother-32. Taking the significant back-orders for the instrument, this really was the best way for me to get my hands on one. Since there is quite a bit to cover concerning the trip, so I will just start with the review itself.
Moog was kind enough to let me sit in the sound lab for several hours to go through a complete work through of the synthesizer. For the sake of clarity I tested it with a Serge TKB (The Human Comparator/Zthee version) and a Shbobo SHNTH. I recreated the conditions I would test any other instrument.
Build Quality and Ergonomics
The build and feel of an instrument in the eurorack world is often overlooked. With regards to the Moog Mother-32 there were a number of decisions that were made to keep the solid feel of the instrument as well as maintain access to knobs even with it’s modular nature. As such it maintains the feel of a classic Moog instrument, even while in the smaller eurorack footprint.
The one thing that is immediately noticeable is the fact that this does have the same large knobs as it’s classic siblings in both the keyboard space and 5U space. These pots are in no way wobbly either, they are solid. For people who complain about the small fiddly knobs of eurorack you would be pleased with the overall ergonomics of the Mother-32.
As one patches one notices the patchbay is kept out of the way from the knobs, this was a conscious decision by the engineers, and inspired by instruments such as the Fenix and the original Wiard modular synthesizers. This does add a great deal to the tweakability of the knobs as one is playing. It is a welcome change, which is difficult to appreciate unless one has fiddled with tiny eurorack knobs with large walls of wires in their way. The only loss is it can be hard to keep track of functions and their relationship to the instrument as one is patching. It is a fairly dense patchbay with the 32 patch points. But I believe it is a sacrifice that works out rather well, and resolves one of the major gripes with eurorack, which is access to knobs.
The casing of the instrument is solid, all metal with wood ends. Like Moog’s many other instruments, the casing is angled to face the user. While this does create a slightly larger instrument while it is standing alone, it does make it more comfortable to look down at and interact with. With that being said, the overall footprint of the instrument is fairly small. It kept with the eurorack 3u standard, and is around 60HP. This is not a large instrument by any means.
In terms of the electronics, over time Moog has moved to surface mount technology for their lower priced instruments, as this allows for more automated processes for PCB boards. The Mother 32 is no exception. For those worried that this will effect the sound, let me be clear about this, it doesn’t. This is a beautiful sounding analog instrument that sounds as thick and rich as any other Moog. SMT makes instruments like the Mother 32 affordable as well as it allows more features to be packed into a smaller footprint. It should also be noted that Moog’s quality control is excellent and I do not believe SMT changes anything in that regard. I also do not think the strongest feature, the sequencer, would have been possible without this modern manufacturing technique.
Simple Voice, Massive Sound
The voice for the Moog Mother-32 is pretty simple, 1 VCO, 1 Filter, 1 LFO, 1 ENV, a VCA, Noise, and a couple of mixers. If this sounds familiar, yes, it’s lineage is to the Moog Werkstatt synthesizers, but that is more of a starting point, rather than an end point. The Moog Mother-32 significantly expands on the patching capabilities with the voice, there is a total of 32 patch points with the synthesizer between the voice and the sequencer. While the Werkstatt had patching, it lacked the amount of depth found in the mother 32, almost every aspect of the synth allows for voltage control. Bob Moog would have been pretty proud of the design in this respect.
While the Mother-32 has a simple voice it sounds massive, this is in large part to a high quality oscillator, even if in comparison to other oscillators in the eurorack space it seems simple. While only having two waveforms, the oscillator is actually rich in it’s tonality. With both pulse width and frequency modulation, it allows for a great deal of flexibility as well. The frequency modulation though is what helps define it’s depth. I do not know why in this day and age frequency modulation is left out of analog oscillators on so many instruments, thankfully in this case Moog included it. Which is substantial, because a great deal of the magic of the Mother-32 comes from the high quality analog frequency modulation. The result is the Mother-32 allows for rather complex synthesis sounds to emerge through patching using the FM capabilities. The voice in it can go from Moog Bass deep, all the way to FM bell tones as a result. The result is even though the synth voice seems limited, it is in fact rather expansive.
One of the things that I would be remiss not to mention is the filter. Moog synthesizers are of course famous for the ladder filter. This filter has more or less found itself on every synthesizer Moog music has ever created. Make no mistake, it is here as well, with both a high pass and low pass modes, and it does in fact sound phenomenal with both filters. The reason why east coast synthesis can work great comes from the strength of the filters. If the filter is terrible, it falls apart rather quickly. The ladder filter found on Moog synths though are the best there is for this task, and the Mother 32 is no exception. This is a high fidelity filter with a wide range of sounds from the musical to the gritty. Because of this there is a great deal of flexibility in how it sounds, it is not necessarily limited to one narrow range of sounds (I am looking at you TB-303 filter). The Mother 32 does have a switch between the high pass and low pass filter, so it is not just limited to the low pass one finds on some other Moog instruments. The difference between the Mother-32 and Moog’s keyboard synths of course, is like their traditional modulars, it is all patchable, allowing for both modulation and audio experimentation.
The modulation on the Mother-32 is not it’s strong suit, but it does do the job. The LFO is voltage controlled and goes into audio rate, and the Attack (Sustain) Decay envelope can get rather snappy. But this is not the complex envelope one finds in the Kilpatrick Phenol, a Serge, or in much of eurorack (such as Make Noise’s legendary Maths). With that being said the voltage control mixer, and the fact there is independent outs for both LFO waveforms does help. I should note, while this is not the strong suit, it’s not a weakness. You can pull off interesting modulation possibilities with the right patching. The reality is the sequencer, which I will get to later, really does open up the modulation possibilities to the unit.
For those interested, which I am, this instrument does have a way to drone the synth through turning on the VCA, and away from “eg” mode near the volume control. This means the synthesizer is an excellent synth for noise or drone if one chooses to use it for this purpose. It is a credit to Moog that they realized that this is a potential usage of the synthesizer.
Which gets me to the last part, this is a modular instrument, even though it is hard wired for a rather vanilla direct signal path. The modular patching is really where the mother 32 does in fact open up. Nearly everything is exposed to control voltage or frequency modulation. Which more than anything is a testament to Bob Moog’s greatest invention, which is control voltage. In an age when modular synthesizers using Bob Moog’s invention are becoming more popular because of the eurorack format, the fact that Moog has entered the fray seems only right.
The Sequencer – 303 Killer?
Talking to some of the people at Moog Music, the best part of the Mother-32 may have never made it into the synthesizer, which is the sequencer. There are sometimes elements of synthesizers that take a good instrument, and elevate them into a classic one. While the voice of the mother-32 is fantastic, the instrument is a classic because of the sequencer. It significantly improves it’s use as a stand alone instrument.
The sequencer at first looks difficult to use, but it really just takes three steps to get it going with a new patch, and this is well laid out in both the quick start guide and the manual. However, if I have any gripe regarding the instrument, it is the need for button combinations to control the sequencer. The sequencer does require time to learn to understand all of the functionalities. Unlike the voice structure, it lacks a certain degree of immediacy. It does become more intuitive the more you use it though.
The sequencer has both a “step” mode and a “keyboard” mode. The reality is both are a form of step sequencing, just one is a little different than the other in terms of approach.
The engineers at Moog were inspired by the Roland TB-303 and subsequent Adafruit XoXBox. Amos and Steve, the engineers who worked on this, were very clear that they loved these instruments, and drew inspiration from them from the sequencer. As much as this is being publicized as “Moog does eurorack”, this synthesizer goes well beyond that. The reality is this little Moog is not only a wonderful entry into the modular world, it is also a great little stand alone sequenced synthesizer. The depth of the sequencer is pretty substantial, is easily one of the most flexible I have encountered inside an instrument. It is able to pull off some very musical tasks, but also some very experimental ones. In this respect it goes well beyond the capabilities of the TB-303.
I will be honest, given my limited time, I could not explore every feature within the sequencer, largely because I did not have the time, and there is just too much there to cover. This is because the sequencer also has an assign mode which can unlock some “missing” features such as additional waveforms for modulation, clocks, and a random “sample and hold” waveform. This assign function is where modulation possibilities really do open up. This is where running into the “no way to get to all of it” starts to take hold. At the same time…this is why this instrument really does shine.
If somebody were to ask me what is missing from this I would have a hard time coming up with a straight answer. The Mother-32 is designed to be a simple voice, but it’s extensive modular patching allows for a great deal of complexity. While it could use an additional modulation source, that role is easily filled in by the extensive sequencer.
The only current problem comes from the fact the sequencer is coupled with the voice. Well rest assured, this feature, to decouple the synth from the sequencer is something Moog is working on for a future firmware release. This would increase the utility of this within the eurorack world as a module even further. They are listening to people who are using the instrument.
Some can argue another envelope or oscillator. I think the elegance of this synth really is it’s minimalism. Many people who work with modular synthesizers often think in creative ways to get multiple uses out of each component, an LFO becomes an oscillator, an Envelope becomes an LFO, a Filter becomes an Oscillator. This instrument is no different. Even the waveshaping which some people will see as “missing” can be done with the right patching using the two wave forms and the mixer. I think that’s the point, this is an instrument that allows one to approach these things creatively. There is learning keyboards, and then learning synthesis. This really is about the latter, not the former. There is quite a world to explore, and this is a complete synthesizer, even with its seeming simplicity.
Reviewing the instrument, I thought just one thing was missing, and it only becomes relevant when one is working directly outside of the Mother-32 itself, which is a sync for the oscillator. This is a function though which is really only useful though if you expand beyond one Mother-32. This is a small gripe, because the synth is fantastic otherwise and very flexible for a single voice synth. Additionally, oscillator sync is by no means a deal killer for me that the lack of FM is on a synthesizer.
It should be noted I reviewed the instrument for what it was, not what it is not. I was not expecting a Buchla or Serge while playing a Moog. So while from a different perspective something may be “missing”, the reality is it is at it’s heart a Moog. The core voice is reflective of that, and the fact Moog packed in several additional features with the sequencer, does make it impressive. It is hard to find anything as “missing” with the instrument as a result. This is a fantastic instrument for what it is, capable of a wide palette of sounds. If one wants to add to that they can always take the next step into eurorack.
Unlike many other synthesizers, including analogs, it does in fact sound fantastic even when dry. Ultimately, this is really what ultimately matters with an instrument such as this. How does it sound? In the case of the Mother-32, the sound is sometimes beautiful, sometimes strange, and sometimes angry. It depends on what you push the instrument towards, what ones goals are in sound synthesis. The Mother-32 is not a be all end all, no synthesizer is, but it is a great instrument that can achieve quite a bit.
What if I Have Eurorack Already? Other Modulars?
For those that already have eurorack they may be wondering if this instrument is a good fit, especially with the footprint this instrument does take up. I am not sure there is a clear answer to that, because much like everything in eurorack, it depends on what you are seeking out. However, for a Moog voice, it does represent a pretty substantial value. While others have attempted to push such a voice in the eurorack space, it is often at a significant cost. With both the oscillator and filter sounding fantastic, and with a few additional utility functions, it is a solid addition, especially if one is particularly weak with east coast style modules. Which I found all to common with my own modular systems.
It should be noted, I did use a the Serge TKB to test this as well, and the Mother-32 responded wonderfully to it. I would imagine that anything that works with the 1/v octave standard would work well with the Mother-32. The key is having the right format jumblers around if one is switching between wire formats. Being aware of the differences in voltages that may exist. It would be at home with most modular systems out there, save for maybe Korg MS-20 mini (Hz) and Buchla (1.2/v), which both use different standards and require converters.
A Moog For Everyone
When Moog originally created the Minimoog he originally intended for it to be a way for ordinary musicians to obtain a synthesizer. Over the years it seems Moog Music, while still offering higher end instruments, has tried to reach the people as well, and quite effectively between the phatty series. The problem is while the phatty series and minimoogs are wonderful instruments, it does not appeal to everybody making music with synthesizer these days . In the age of drone boxes, eurorack performance modulars, and sequenced synthesizers, the world of electronic music is more expansive than keyboard instruments. I think in many ways the Mother-32 is trying to stay in that spirit of making Moog synthesis affordable, but also staying current, and the result is a sequencer and modular synthesizer that is accessible, and beautiful.
Moog is still living up to Bob’s vision even while maintaining modernity with the Mother-32. Not everybody likes keyboards or interacts with synthesizers that way in this day and age. For me, sequencers and complex synthesis tend to be at the core of my workflow. The concept of a large and expensive Moog modular system is not something I find particularly practical for live performance when I am frequently taking public transit to shows. I love modular synthesizers, but the space issue for 5U (Moog Unit) is a major issue when one is living in a city such as DC as well. Moog’s leap into both the small format desktop semi-modular and eurorack space is something that is welcome for those who love to use such instruments in both space limited cities, but also those dependent on public transit. This is the Moog modular for the city dweller.
Moog has created a smaller instrument that is flexible enough to appeal to both the experimental synthesist, and the modern EDM musician. This really is a synthesizer that fills a gap that has long existed at Moog, what if the keyboard instruments are not something that work for me? This is a Moog for the drone artists and house producers. Those who want something that is beat oriented, and those that want something that is out there. From a musical perspective, this is a Moog for those who are seeking something a little different. Where a keyboard is not desired, or needed.
Above all, I see this synthesizer really an ideal entry point. While some synthesizers offer a very simple architecture, they really do not open the door to deeper functionality which is found on modular synthesizers. This Mother-32 is different, it is a great entry point for beginners, but it is also a way to take them down their journey as a synthesist. It is both a very good example of the basics of east coast synthesis, but also a gateway of the depth that can be achieved by deviating from it using modular patching. While experienced EDM and experimental electronic musicians will get a great deal out of this, the real winners are those who are just starting their journey. This really is a great Moog to learn on. The inclusion of a sequencer and midi really does make this possible to the fullest extent. One can either take this as a leaping off point and move to something more akin to a sub-37, or use it as a gateway to a modular system. But it also can be an end point, because it is a very effective instrument for making music, and adding additional Mother-32 synthesizers, does in fact expand it’s utility since all of the elements for complex synthesis are there. Moog Music created a great synthesizer with the Mother-32, something that is simple, yet opens the door to depth and complexity if one seeks it out.
My hope is of course, Moog releases more modules in this same space for both eurorack, and as expansions to the mother 32. That this is not the end for Moog in this space. Because they are off to a great start with the Mother-32. Moog achieved an ideal I do seek out in synthesizers, between functionality, sound, and features. As of this point, I would recommend the Moog Mother-32 to pretty much anybody who has an interest in either learning synthesis, or is actively involved in making electronic music. The Mother-32 is close to ideal, no matter the skill level.
Erika (Interdimensional Transmissions) and Bana Haffar are featured in the first Moog Music demo video for their hotly anticipated eurorack compatible semi-modular Mother-32. This was additionally wonderful since both highlighted some beautiful music, and took the demo’s beyond the typical dance or rock tracks you typically here for synthesizer demos.
I will be reviewing the Mother 32 much the same way I did the Kilpatrick Phenol. The unit pretty much fantastic so far, the ultimate low price entry point into Eurorack. In fact I really cannot find any flaws to what Moog is offering here, it really is the complete package. Their legendary Moog Ladder Filter, and a pretty killer sequencer make a compelling argument at this price point. Never mind the packaging and presentation is great, and the fact they ditched my biggest gripes with previous Moog products, namely the keyboard (not my thing) or the insane cost (the 5u modular systems). It also added a feature I consider a must these days, FM.
As it stands neither of my modular systems have many resonant filters. In fact I always have a little internal debate in my head in terms of how useful such filters even are for myself.
One of the main gripes of many people have about older FM synthesizers such as the DX7 is the fact there were no resonant filters. For people who play keyboard synthesizers the simple subtractive signal flow of a Moog is often preferred to the algorithmic complexity of a DX7. However, over time the usefulness of frequency modulation has come to light more, and people are now shifting to a different mentality regarding filters.
Those of us who play modulars though are far more foggy regarding resonant filters though. Some people love them and they remain critical to a signal flow. Others, like myself tend to maybe have one around just in case, but do not necessary use them. I use this as a prime example, my Serge/Ian Fritz system only has one resonant filter, the Ian Fritz Teezer.
This is not to say I don’t have filters, they are just modules which can act as non-resonant low pass gates such as the Dual Universal Slope Generator, and the Smooth and Stepped Generator. In addition my custom built panel also has a Buchla style low pass gate. Instead my personal system is heavily reliant on Frequency Modulation, Ring Modulation, Hard Syncs, and Waveshaping to add complexity to generated sounds.
There has been a long discussion over “West Coast” and “East Coast” in the modular world over modular synthesizers. This dates back to Buchla and Moogs original modular systems. Buchla had more waveshaping and frequency modulation, while Moog systems had low pass resonant filters. The lines blurred over time with Serge having both resonant filters, FM, and Waveshaping in his modular systems, as did other makers. Serge though is still largely considered west coast with the multi-function modules such as the Universal Slope Generator. That and the fact he was living in San Francisco at the time of creating his original modules.
The reality is as synthesizers became more keyboard instruments, the Moog style signal flow began to win out, and with it, resonant filters. Q won the day, at least for a time. This however has changed over the years as people began to realize some of the benefits to that west coast signal flow. Vactrols and non-resonant filters began to become a more consistent part of modular synthesizers even outside of Buchla’s systems in recent years. People began to see the benefits of Serge and Buchla’s designs.
This is the thing, in terms of my own music, I cannot really see much of the purpose for resonant filters. I always feel I need more of them, but often realize I rarely use the ones I have and instead fall back on other synthesis methods, especially waveshaping and FM. The best use of the resonant filter often ends up being another oscilator. The reality is I am more comfortable without the Q.
Building a synthesizer or synthesizer module is one of the most enjoyable things in life. At least to me. One of the things I noticed about many of the early synthesists, many learned on how to make. Daphne Oram, Laurie Spiegel, and many other synthesists were introduced to electronics very early in their childhood. I highly recommend if you have daughters, that you please introduce your daughters to electronics DIY. Especially if they have a crafty side. I know this may sound like a record on repeat at this point, but there are far too few women in technology and engineering. Building synths from PCB boards and electronic kits is one only a great introduction to synthesizers, but also having a deeper understanding of how technology works and making in general.
This is a little bit of a warning, building DIY from synthesizers does entail some risk for some kits. DIY electronics often involves soldering, and all of these have an appropriate age and maturity level to get started. If you are doing this with your child, and feel your kid is not ready for a soldering iron, there are alternatives I will list later in this post. As fun as it is, and make no mistake, soldering involves a very hot device, and testing things sometimes that involve electricity. With that being said, the kits I am going to be recommending to start are pretty simple and easy to get started on, they often include comprehensive documentation. If following the instructions in the documentation the risk for injury is low. Also some kits are explicitly made for a wide age range.
First off, if you are planning on building synthesizers from PCBs, you will need the following things: a Soldering Iron ideally with a temperature gauge and multiple tips, good solder (Kester No-Clean Flux 63/37 Solder), flux, a good multimeter (there is no reason to spend a ton), wire cutters, a wire stripper, a solder tip cleaner (non-wet), a solder wick, a solder sucker, and small screwdrivers. It is also good idea to have a decent lamp and magnifying glass with a gooseneck. This may seem like a great deal but it will all last a long time. One option is to have an oscilloscope for calibration as well, but that is not necessary to get started with building. It is a good idea to always do this in a well ventilated room with a fan. In terms of safety, safety goggles and a mask are recommended if you are soldering. The mask for the fumes, the goggles are for obvious reasons.
There are so many good guides on “how to solder” on youtube. Instead of providing an explanation, I actually think that watching one of these videos is more helpful than anything I can explain.
It should be noted, that in general you should start by checking the board with the multimeter, and the components. Start by soldering the resistors first, then the rest of the smaller components like the caps and chips. This is called stuffing the board. Once you get those out of the way, then the other components come into play, with the LEDs, pots, and wiring usually being the last things that are done. During the last steps of the process you begin testing the device to confirm it’s functionality before mounting it to it’s case or panel. Again, this will be covered in the documentation for what you are building, or any online build guide.
While there are several companies that make appropriate DIY kits to start out with. I will be starting a page with all the resources for things such as DIY kits I can find. However, for this purpose I will start with the two which are both the most commonly found, but also the most beginner friendly.
4MS has become known in the modular DIY community as one of the best starting points for DIY synthesizer modules. Their Eurorack modular kits have some of the best documentation for DIY electronics out there. These guides are not just good for building their modules, but as a general educational resource for getting started with modular synthesizers. The downside to the 4MS modular kits is you already have to be into modular synthesizers, since it requires you already have a eurorack case and power supply to start off. But if you are already into modular synthesizers and have a eurorack system, this is a great place to start. With that being said, their guitar pedal kits offer a good alternative to their eurorack systems.
4MS also makes guitar pedal kits that are self oscillating in some cases. The pedals themselves in many ways are mini-drone synths. There are people in the experimental community that “play pedals” for drone and noise music. The 4MS pedals are appropriate for this. Some of these pedal kits can be used as stand alone devices, so even if you do not have a modular synthesizer this does not mean you will miss out on these great kits. The cool thing about pedals is in some ways you can create your own signal chains.
While the werkstatt-01 and the moog theremin kits are not the strongest start for adults as they do not introduce full component building, they do both provide a quick introduction to some of the very basics of both DIY and synthesis. These kits are highly recommended for people who are doing this with their kids, and want something that is both fun and educational. The best part of the werkstatt is it can expand outside just what is provided with the kit.
Korg Music worked with littlebits for an introductory synth kits. littleBits is a beginner DIY electronics system that is meant for education and experimentation. The company was founded by Ayah Badier, a female engineer. I HIGHLY recommend if you have kids you introduce them to littleBits period, and the Korg kit is one of the most common and fun. The nice thing about little bits is if you feel your kid is not ready for soldering, they can still make with these kits. I should note, littleBits beauty is they are also useful for adults to get started and play with.
While I would not recommend spending time on some sections of the forum, the DIY subsection is an incredibly useful resource and the site of many new and interesting DIY projects. If you keep just to this section of the board your experience will be positive.
Adafruit is a source for DIY supplies and in some cases kits. It has all sorts of interesting DIY electronics projects and 3D printers as well. It is also a female founded business, Limor Fried the founder is also behind the legendary xoxbox project. Adafruit always seems to have some smaller DIY music projects worth exploring.
COA has both DIY synth workshops in SF and frequently releases the serge panels that can be used with CGS PCBs. Dmitri can also make custom designed unbuilt serge panels if you have a specific idea, but do not have the resources to make the panel.